In March , for the first time, married women gained the right to an internal passport in their own name simply by requesting it. Born in Riga, Latvia, her father a Latvian machinist on the railroad, her mother the daughter of a carpenter, she is the first of our subjects to have taken her marital fate in her own hands and defied the long-standing tradition that empowered parents or guardians to arrange the marriages of the young. Nikolai Semenov had won his bride by appealing to her thirst for pleasure and adventure.
Although lacking the wherewithal to follow through, he enticed her with promises of a luxurious future and travel to the world renowned Paris Exhibition of Poorly educated, crude and prone to violence, Nikolai made their marital life a misery. After six years, Lidiia left him to live with her parents, briefly reconciled with him for the sake of their two children, and then fled again, this time to live with her lover. That Lidiia had become sexually involved with a man other than her husband there could be no question. The lover, N.
Encouraging Lidiia to abandon Nikolai for good, K. A collegiate secretary resident in Moscow, another witness, likewise acknowledged without negative commentary her involvement with K. The two planned to marry once Lidiia gained a divorce, he asserted. In the mids, however, officials had begun to moderate their stance. But they did ensure that she would be able to live separately from her husband, obtaining permission for this from the Moscow City governor.
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To be sure, these, too, had eased significantly by the early years of the twentieth century. Divorce had become far more accessible to moneyed couples prepared to collude in demonstrating adultery, the most common grounds for divorce. In a letter of 24 October , Lidiia had pleaded with him not to obstruct her divorce suit. Nikolai evidently refused. In , when Lidiia appealed to the chancellery one final time, Nikolai was still her husband, and she was living on the short-term passports he permitted her.
On the positive side, the new and more individualized values of the marketplace appear to have fostered new desires and encouraged Agafonova and Semenova to assert them, much as consumer culture did for Tania, the young peasant woman whom Worobec depicts. But urban life and its blandishments offered all three of these pleasure-loving townswomen far more varied opportunities to indulge their desires than were to be found in a peasant village, and encouraged the three to break free of the constraints imposed by family and community and refashion their lives better to suit themselves.
These are not only failed marriages, but failed marriages in which the husband, for whatever reason, refused to permit his wife to live as she pleased. The sample omits couples that lived happily or parted amicably and leaves out single women altogether. Still, if the source base is biased, the limitations these stories reveal were real enough. They remind us that while cultural change may offer new ways of conceiving and expressing the self, individuals also act within the social and institutional structures of their particular time and place, which, like material realities, constrain as well as enable their choices.
Twentieth Century Russia by Donald W Treadgold - AbeBooks
Brower, The Russian City , pp. Aleksandr I. On fragmentation, see Alfred J. Clowes, Samuel D. Kassow, and James L. Culture , ed.
Culture , pp. On comparative literacy, see S. Stepanova Petrograd: Gorodskaia uprava, , pp. No end date is given. Publication remained incomplete. In Russian, see Iurii M. Goncharov and Vadim S. Barnaul: Az Buka, ; A.
Zorin et al. Goncharov, Meshchanskoe soslovie , pp. Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii arkhiv RGIA , f. RGIA, f. Hutchinson Bloomington: Indiana University Press, , pp. McReynolds, Russia at Play , pp. Khoroshii ton: sbornik pravil i sovetov na vse sluchai zhizni obshchestvennoi i semeinoi , 5th edn.
St Petersburg: German Goppe, , p. Steinberg and Heather J. Coleman Bloomington: Indiana University Press, , pp. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers. Thank you. We will forward your request to your library as soon as possible. OpenEdition is a web platform for electronic publishing and academic communication in the humanities and social sciences.
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Your e-mail has be sent. In most local government in the European part of Russia was organized into provincial and district zemstva sing.
A History of Russia since 1855 - Volume 2
In elected city councils, or dumy sing. Dominated by property owners and constrained by provincial governors and the police, the zemstva and dumy raised taxes and levied labor to support their activities.
In the regime implemented judicial reforms. In major towns, it established Western-style courts with juries. In general, the judicial system functioned effectively, but the government lacked the finances and cultural influence to extend the court system to the villages, where traditional peasant justice continued to operate with minimal interference from provincial officials.